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Types of Automatic Transmissions on Cars in India

Types of Automatic Transmissions on Cars in India

Types of Automatic T..

  • 09 May 2016, 18851 Views

Roshun

Super Moderator

Member: 13 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 2035

  • 9 May 2016, 8:42 pm ( 3 Photos , 1 Video)
Automatic transmissions are becoming increasingly common in India now with more manufacturers offering them on their cars. However, there is some degree of confusion of the types of automatic transmissions that certain cars have. People confuse DSGs with torque convertors and AMTs with CVTs. Let me explain the various types of automatic transmissions that are on offer to make it simple for you to understand the kind of transmission in your car.
Torque Converters
This is the one of the most common types of automatic transmissions. It consists of two main sections essentially. The gearbox is fully sealed and contains the planetary gears (four-speed, five-speed or six-speed). There is no clutch, and the gearbox is mated to the engine via a “Torque convertor” which is a viscous coupling. It consists of hydraulic fluid and two impellers. When the engine spins, it forces the fluid against impeller that drives the gearbox shaft. In some cars there is a lock-up clutch, which engages once the car is in top gear to prevent transmission losses.
Gearshift pattern that the driver sees usually would have P – Park, R – Reverse, N – Neutral – D- Drive and then any combination of 1,2,3 or L or S, depending on the car. These are manual selections allowing you to select a gear to drive in. Some will also have a manual selection mode (usually in sport or drive) where you can go up or down the gears sequentially (+ / - markings).
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Advantages of a torque convertor:
  • Very smooth drive experience (no jerks)
  • Simple user interface
  • Decent levels of performance
Disadvantages of a torque convertor:
  • Some transmission losses lead to lower fuel efficiency compared to a manual, CVT or AMT
  • Complicated gearbox, tough to repair
  • Poor engine braking
DSG / DCT or Dual Clutch Automatic Transmissions
Dual-clutch automatic transmissions work even better than manual transmissions and are used in cars where performance is what matters most. The speed of shifting in a dual-clutch automatic transmission is in micro-seconds, much faster than any driver can shift with a manual transmission. The gearbox has two clutches that are mated to the engine – one that handles odd numbered gears and one that handles even-numbered gears. This system uses as series of electronic motors to activate the clutches and perform the gear shifts. It predicts which gear the driver needs based on rpm and road speed. So if you are accelerating fast, and it is in second, third gear would already be pre-selected on the other clutch, allowing for a lightning fast shift. Similarly, as the car is slowing down, it pre-selects a lower gear and keeps it ready.
Gearshift pattern is similar to a torque convertor, with P,R,N,D – and any combination of S,L or 1,2,3 after that. All DSGs would include a tiptronic / manual mode, allowing you to drive it like a manual, shifting up or down as you need either through paddle shifts or using the gear selector.
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Advantages of a DCT:
  • Lightning quick gear shifts
  • Sporty performance with the ability to drive like a manual
  • No transmission losses
Disadvantages of a DCT:
  • Expensive transmissions, pretty complicated
  • Bulky in size
  • Can heat up in very heavy stop-go conditions
Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT)
An automated manual transmission is actually the poor cousin of the DCT / DSG. It is nothing but a regular manual gearbox, which has a motor to do the shifting for the gears and an electronic motor to operate the clutch, and hence while there is a regular clutch connecting the gearbox and the engine, there is no clutch pedal in the car. These extra bits are controlled by a computer that monitors the road speed and rpm of the car and performs the shifts accordingly. This technology is increasingly finding its way into cars in India, as it is quite cost effective.
The gearshift pattern on an automated manual transmission would not usually have a P or Park position, as this transmission does not have a parking pawl. Hence if you have to park on a slope, you need to use the handbrake to keep the car from rolling. Gearshift patterns are usually R – Reverse, N- Neutral, D-Drive and M-Manual (which has + / - positions to shift up and down manually when needed).
Check out this video I made a few years ago for Maruti, explaining what an AMT does:

Advantages of an AMT:
  • Low-cost as it is almost a semi-automatic
  • Parts sharing with manual gearbox makes it cheap and easy to maintain
  • Good fuel efficiency as it performs like a manual, and sometimes better than a manual.
Disadvantages of an AMT:
  • No park mode – the vehicle can roll on slopes
  • Jerky shifts, if driven aggressively

CVT or Constantly Variable Transmission
A constantly variable transmission is one that has an almost infinite set of ratios. That’s because it does not consist of the traditional “gears” as such. A CVT consists of two conical pulleys with a steel or rubber belt across them. As the revs rise, the belt moves across the surface of the pulleys, altering the ratios (smaller to larger on the engine driven pulley and larger to smaller on the output pulley). This allows for constantly changing gear ratios to match the driving conditions. If driven properly, a CVT can give very good fuel efficiency as it is always in just the right gear for a given speed. Some CVTs have fixed points that are controllable by the driver (hence you get 5-speed or 7-speed settings).
The gear shift pattern looks exactly like a torque convertor automatic – P, R, N, D, S and with preset speeds or + / -.
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Advantages of a CVT:
  • Compact size and light weight gearbox. Suitable for small cars
  • Good fuel efficiency possible if driven with a light foot
  • Smooth shifting, no jerks at all
Disadvantages of a CVT:
  • Rubber-band effect, where the car revs a lot before it moves, if driven hard
  • Does not have enough engine braking ability
Next Post > Cars in India that have the above transmission options.

rajnish

First Gear

Member: 13 Mar, 2016

Total Posts: 132

  • 10 May 2016, 7:26 am
Thanks for the article Roshun.
I have a question. What do L & S stand for. How are they different from D? In what situations would they be useful?
All DSGs would include a tiptronic / manual mode, allowing you to drive it like a manual, shifting up or down as you need either through paddle shifts or using the gear selector.
So tiptronic just means manual gear selection?
Thanks in advance

Roshun

Super Moderator

Member: 13 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 2035

  • 10 May 2016, 7:41 am
"Originally posted by rajnish"
Thanks for the article Roshun.
I have a question. What do L & S stand for. How are they different from D? In what situations would they be useful?
So tiptronic just means manual gear selection?
Thanks in advance
L stands for low, where the transmission would select the lowest possible gear for that RPM range. Good for hill climbs etc. S is for sport, similar in function to low, holding maximum RPM in each gear, great for quick driving. In D the transmission would usually shift up much earlier for better fuel efficiency, at optimum RPM. Yes, Tiptronic was the VW groups nomenclature for manual mode.

rajnish

First Gear

Member: 13 Mar, 2016

Total Posts: 132

  • 10 May 2016, 8:30 am
Thanks, that explains it well :-)

n00b

First Gear

Member: 11 Feb, 2016

Total Posts: 76

  • 10 May 2016, 12:29 pm
First thought TL;DR but then I think it's one of the most informative threads yet.
Thanks SuperMod, for clearing air on the jargon.

Praveen

Enthusiast

Member: 01 Dec, 2015

Total Posts: 2027

  • 10 May 2016, 1:04 pm
Roshun A very informative post. By the way, why aren't CVT used in bikes? If it could be used in commuter bikes, it'd be great for fuel efficiency, right? On the other hand, what TVS tried with the Jive didn't work out as expected. Do you guys think that kind of feature could do well in a bike like Honda CBR 250 R? It would be just like a pared-down version of the VFR 1200F!

MotuSid

Hot Hatcher

Member: 02 Nov, 2015

Total Posts: 319

  • 10 May 2016, 7:25 pm
All automatic-transmission equipped cars currently on sale in India, sorted according to the type of automatic transmission they have -
* The letter in the bracket beside the car name indicates the motor the automatic transmission is offered with - P is petrol, D is diesel, H is hybrid and E is electric. Click on the link to read the review of the car
Automated Manual Transmission / AMT -
Tata Nano (P)
Tata Zest (D)
Maruti Suzuki Alto K10 (P)
Maruti Suzuki Celerio (P)
Maruti Suzuki WagonR (P)
Maruti Suzuki WagonR Stingray (P)
Maruti Suzuki Swift DZire (D)
Mahindra NuvoSport (D)
Mahindra TUV300 (D)
Fiat 595 Competizione (P)
Lamborghini Aventador (P) and Lamborghini Aventador Roadster (P)
Renault Duster (D)
Torque Converter -
Maruti Suzuki Ritz (P)
Maruti Suzuki Baleno (P)
Maruti Suzuki Swift DZire (P)
Maruti Suzuki Ertiga (P)
Maruti Suzuki Ciaz (P)
Honda Brio (P)
Hyundai Grand i10 (P)
Hyundai Xcent (P)
Hyundai Verna (P) and Hyundai Verna (D)
Hyundai Creta (P and D)
Hyundai Elantra (P and D)
Hyundai Santa Fe (D)
Skoda Rapid (P)
Mahindra Scorpio (D)
Mahindra XUV500 (D)
Toyota Corolla Altis (P)
Toyota Innova Crysta (D)
Toyota Fortuner (D)
Toyota Camry (P)
Toyota Land Cruiser Prado (D)
Toyota Land Cruiser 200 (D)
Chevrolet Cruze (D)
Chevrolet Trailblazer (D)
Isuzu MU-7 (D)
SsangYong Rexton W (D)
Renault Koleos (D)
Ford Endeavour (D)
Volvo V40 (D)
Volvo V40 Cross Country (P and D)
Volvo S60 (P) and Volvo S60 (D)
Volvo S60 Cross Country (D)
Volvo S80 (D)
Volvo XC60 (D)
Volvo XC90 (D)
Mitsubishi Pajero Sport (D)
Mercedes-Benz C-Class (P) and Mercedes-Benz C-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz E-Class (P) and Mercedes-Benz E-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz GLE-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class (P)
Mercedes-Benz CLS-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz GLC (P) and (D)
Mercedes-Benz GLS-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz E-Class Cabriolet (P)
Mercedes-Benz S-Class (P and D)
Mercedes-Maybach S-Class (P)
Mercedes-Benz S-Class Coupe (P)
Mercedes-Benz SLK55 AMG (P)
Mercedes-Benz G63 AMG (P)
Mercedes-Benz GL63 AMG (P)
MINI Cooper 3-Door (P) and MINI Cooper 3-Door (D)
MINI Cooper 5-Door (D)
MINI Cooper Convertible (P)
MINI Countryman Cooper (D)
BMW 1-Series (D)
BMW X1 (D)
BMW 3-Series (D)
BMW X3 (D)
BMW Gran Turismo (D)
BMW 5-Series (D)
BMW X5 (D)
BMW 7-Series (P and D)
BMW 6-Series Gran Coupe (D)
BMW X5 M (P)
BMW X6 M (P)
BMW X6 (D)
BMW i8 (H)
Land Rover Freelander 2 (D)
Land Rover Discovery Sport (D)
Land Rover Discovery 4 (D)
Jaguar XE (P)
Jaguar XF (P and D)
Jaguar XJ (P and D)
Jaguar F-Type (P)
Range Rover Evoque (D)
Range Rover Sport (P and D)
Range Rover Sport SVR (P)
Range Rover (P and D)
Audi Q5 (D)
Audi Q7 (D)
Audi A8L (P and D)
Audi RS7 (P)
Audi RS6 Avant (P)
Porsche Cayenne (P and D)
Porsche Panamera (D)
Maserati Ghibli (D)
Maserati Quattroporte (P and D)
Maserati GranCabrio (P)
Bentley Continental GT and Flying Spur (P)
Bentley Bentayga (P)
Bentley Mulsanne (P)
Aston Martin Rapide (P)
Rolls-Royce Phantom (P)
Rolls-Royce Ghost (P)
Rolls-Royce Wraith (P)
Dual-Clutch Transmission / DCT / DSG -
Ford Figo (P)
Ford Figo Aspire (P)
Ford EcoSport (P)
Ford Mustang (P)
Volkswagen Polo GT TSI (P)
Volkswagen Vento (P and D)
Volkswagen Jetta (P)
Volkswagen Beetle (P)
Skoda Rapid (D)
Skoda Octavia (P and D)
Skoda Superb (P) and (D)
Renault Duster (D)
Audi A3 (P and D)
Audi A3 Cabriolet (P)
Audi Q3 (D)
Audi A6 (P and D)
Audi S5 (P)
Audi R8 (P)
Audi TT (P)
Mercedes-Benz A-Class (P) and Mercedes-Benz A-Class (D)
Mercedes-Benz B-Class (P and D)
Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class (P and D)
Mercedes-Benz GLA-Class (P and D)
Mercedes-Benz CLA45 AMG (P)
Mercedes-AMG C63 S (P)
Mercedes-Benz E63 AMG (P)
Mercedes-AMG S63 (P)
Mercedes-AMG GT S (P)
Mercedes-Benz GLA45 AMG (P)
Mercedes-AMG S63 Coupe (P)
Mercedes-Benz GLE-Coupe AMG (P)
BMW Z4 (P)
BMW M6 Gran Coupe (P)
BMW M3 (P)
BMW M4 Coupe (P)
BMW M5 (P)
Porsche Boxster (P)
Porsche Macan (P) and (D)
Porsche Cayman (P)
Porsche Panamera (P)
Porsche 911 (P)
Lamborghini Huracan (P)
Ferrari California T (P)
Ferrari 488 GTB and 488 Spyder (P)
Ferrari 458 (P)
Ferrari GTC4Lusso (P)
Ferrari F12berlinetta (P)
Nissa GT-R (P)
Constantly Variable Transmission / CVT -
Nissan Micra (P)
Nissan Sunny (P)
Honda Amaze (P)
Honda Jazz (P)
Honda City (P)
Honda BR-V (P)
Honda CR-V (P)
Audi A4 (P and D)
Toyota Camry (H)
Toyota Prius (H)
Electric Variable Transmission / EVT - Roshun I think you missed this type - electric cars (though there are only a few of them in India) use these
Mahindra e2o (E)
I think that covers almost all of it - phew!

rajnish

First Gear

Member: 13 Mar, 2016

Total Posts: 132

  • 11 May 2016, 10:35 am
Would love to see a similar post on types of hybrid & electric vehicles in India. The Accord Hybrid is expected soon. So is it a Plug-in Hybrid or Mild Hybrid? Similarly for Ciaz SHVS, Toyota vehicles etc.
If possible their Electric Miles, hp of the electric motor etc. Would really spread awareness on the topic!

Praveen

Enthusiast

Member: 01 Dec, 2015

Total Posts: 2027

  • 11 May 2016, 1:04 pm
rajnish Here's a basic write-up about types of hybrids. Do check it out. Also, Roshun has written an interesting article about how 48-Volt lithium ion battery could be the future of hybrid technology. As Roshun has pointed out, self sufficient hybrid vehicles are the way to go in a country like India.

rajnish

First Gear

Member: 13 Mar, 2016

Total Posts: 132

  • 11 May 2016, 5:49 pm
Praveen Thanks a lot for the links They were informative & good to read!

Bora

Crash Test Dummy

Member: 30 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 3

  • 12 May 2016, 1:08 pm
Honda has automatic transmissions for motorcycles. Case in point - the new Africa Twin with a dual clutch transmission.

MotuSid

Hot Hatcher

Member: 02 Nov, 2015

Total Posts: 319

  • 12 May 2016, 2:50 pm
"Originally posted by Bora"
Honda has automatic transmissions for motorcycles. Case in point - the new Africa Twin with a dual clutch transmission.
Well, almost all scooters sold in our country have automatic transmissions as well, mopeds as well - also clutch-less manual transmission on the (discontinued) TVS Jive and some Hero strep-through whose name I forget was a novel thing. Another thread idea Roshun? - I'll get the list of bikes/scooters ready. Heh

kaiserketkar

Moderator

Member: 26 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 403

  • 13 May 2016, 11:07 am
Great informative article Rosh.
I wonder though, why some of the Audis skip their pet DSGs and come with a torque convertor?!

Roshun

Super Moderator

Member: 13 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 2035

  • 23 Sep 2016, 3:14 pm ( 1 Video)
Just came across this fantastic video explaining how a Ford Model T works. Why am I posting it here? Just so that you folks can see how complicated it was to drive a car before automatic transmissions came about.
The Ford Model T was produced between 1908 and 1927. It came with 2.9 litre, in-line 4-cylinder petrol engine mated to a two-speed planetary gearbox. On the floor you had three pedals, the left one was the "clutch" that also operated low gear when stepped on. The middle one was to be pressed to reverse the car. The right pedal was the brake. The throttle was on the right side of the steering wheel. The left side of the steering has advance-retard control for the spark plug ignition timing.
On the left of the driver you had a long lever that when pulled all the way back, engaged the handbrake. Push it to the centre and it would stay in neutral (for starting the car). Start the car, push the "clutch" pedal to the floor and the car would start to move forward in low gear. Release the "clutch", push the handbrake lever all the way forward and it would shift into high gear. To switch back to low gear, you had to just step on the "clutch" pedal. Releasing it would take it back to high gear, unless you pulled the handbrake lever back to the centre, which would put it in neutral. Holding the "clutch" pedal halfway down would disengage the transmission.
Now see the video below on how to start and drive the Ford Model T. Thank your stars of how easy it is to drive a modern car. But I would really love to try one of these! It has its own charm. Top speed 25 mph.

jeetan_sunder

First Gear

Member: 31 Jan, 2017

Total Posts: 3

  • 1 Feb 2017, 8:17 pm
We are some what confused with automatic transmissions found in the new launches in India. The latest trend is AMT ( Automatic Manual Transmission) gearbox, don't get it confused with the manual gearbox, but it is one with automatic actuator clutch and auto gear shift actuator. The automatic transmission is different with the torque converter box and planetary gear set, which gives low power breakup while driving. The new launches like Suzuki Ignis AMT and Maruti Wagon-R Lxi AMT come with auto gear shift technology which provides fuel efficient driving and fewer power losses.

Roshun

Super Moderator

Member: 13 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 2035

  • 2 Feb 2017, 11:42 am
I'm merging your post on automated manual transmissions with an existing thread we have on automatic transmissions in India. I think the basic premise of AMTs is that it is cost effective.

jeetan_sunder

First Gear

Member: 31 Jan, 2017

Total Posts: 3

  • 2 Feb 2017, 6:08 pm
Where is my written post which I posted and you edited?

Roshun

Super Moderator

Member: 13 Oct, 2015

Total Posts: 2035

  • 2 Feb 2017, 6:41 pm
"Originally posted by jeetan_sunder"
We are some what confused with automatic transmissions found in the new launches in India. The latest trend is AMT ( Automatic Manual Transmission) gearbox, don't get it confused with the manual gearbox, but it is one with automatic actuator clutch and auto gear shift actuator. The automatic transmission is different with the torque converter box and planetary gear set, which gives low power breakup while driving. The new launches like Suzuki Ignis AMT and Maruti Wagon-R Lxi AMT come with auto gear shift technology which provides fuel efficient driving and fewer power losses.
Here it is ˆIˆ jeetan_sunder

sai_chakravarth..

First Gear

Member: 02 Nov, 2017

Total Posts: 1

  • 2 Nov 2017, 11:04 pm
Roshun
sir is it good in new ecosport AT clutch pedal shaft , are there will be problem like past 2016 model
Pl conferm about the ecosport dual clutch vehicle
Can i buy ecosport AT as I am PH

JOY MRC

Moderator

Member: 05 Jan, 2016

Total Posts: 606

  • 6 Nov 2017, 12:41 pm

"Originally posted by sai_chakravarthy"
Roshun sir is it good in new Ecosport AT clutch pedal shaft, will there be problem like past 2016 model. Pls confirm about the ecosport dual clutch vehicle Can i buy ecosport AT as I am PH

sai_chakravarthy The Ecosport has ditched the old Dual clutch automatic transmission and gone with a conventional torque converter automatic Gearbox in the new facelifted model. The engine is also a new 3 cylinder 1.5-litre unit. This type of slushbox is reliable and has low maintenance costs when compared to earlier dual clutch unit. paddle shifters are also there so you can also control gear changes manually in 'S' mode with steering mounted shift buttons. Regards...

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